What is a Stemcell?
A stemcell is a versioned Operating System image wrapped with IaaS specific packaging.
A typical stemcell contains a bare minimum OS skeleton with a few common utilities pre-installed, a BOSH Agent, and a few configuration files to securely configure the OS by default. For example: with vSphere, the official stemcell for Ubuntu Trusty is an approximately 500MB VMDK file. With AWS, official stemcells are published as AMIs that can be used in your AWS account.
Stemcells do not contain any specific information about any software that will be installed once that stemcell becomes a specialized machine in the cluster; nor do they contain any sensitive information which would make them unable to be shared with other BOSH users. This clear separation between base Operating System and later-installed software is what makes stemcells a powerful concept.
In addition to being generic, stemcells for one OS (e.g. all Ubuntu Trusty stemcells) are exactly the same for all infrastructures. This property of stemcells allows BOSH users to quickly and reliably switch between different infrastructures without worrying about the differences between OS images.
The Cloud Foundry BOSH team is responsible for producing and maintaining an official set of stemcells. See the stemcells section of bosh.io to see the infrastructures and operating systems that are currently supported.
Stemcells are distributed as tarballs.
By introducing the concept of a stemcell, the following problems have been solved:
- Capturing a base Operating System image
- Versioning changes to the Operating System image
- Reusing base Operating System images across VMs of different types
- Reusing base Operating System images across different IaaS
Common Questions For Linux Stemcells¶
Is there a way I can tell what version of a package is used in a BOSH stemcell without actually installing it?
Download the stemcell and run
tar -xvf stemcell.tgz packages.txt. The
packages.txt contains a list of all packages installed on the stemcell and
their respective versions.
What does the stemcell version number mean?
We have a versioning system that resembles semver. Using an example stemcell
621is the major version number.
45is the patch version number.
The minor version is absent.
Another component to the stemcell version is the Ubuntu distribution that is the base for the stemcell. There can be major breaking changes in adopting the next distro, and this can be treated like the "major" component of a semver version.
When are stemcells published?
The schedule for stemcells roughly looks like:
- New LTS distributions from Canonical are consumed around every 2-3 years. This is usually an overhaul on how the bosh-agent interacts with the base operating system.
- New stemcell major lines are cut every 3-4 months. This is to ensure backwards compatibility between the bosh-agent and bosh-director, as we add new features.
- New patches are cut every 3 weeks to pick up any low & medium CVEs published by https://usn.ubuntu.com
What are the differences between stemcell lines?
There's not much of a difference between stemcell lines under the hood. They're all built with the same base image from Canonical and receive the same security updates. The most important difference is the BOSH agent placed inside the stemcell, which has compatibility considerations with the BOSH director.
How is a stemcell is built and how one would go about building their own stemcell?
The code lives on GitHub at
https://github.com/cloudfoundry/bosh-linux-stemcell-builder. Building a stemcell
occurs in stages. Each stage is represented as a BASH script and can be found in
stemcell_builder/stages/<stage_name>/apply.sh.Each IaaS has its own list of
stages defined here: